Tuesday, August 2, 2011

Child Development: Years Six to Eleven

Continuing the exploration of child development...

Years Six to Eleven

According to Erikson, age six to eleven is the period of Industry versus Inferiority. Children are in school, thus, peer relationships, different kinds of structured activities, rules and cooperative play are important.

Physical/Motor Skills:
  • This is the latency period; children's bodies are beginning to change - pre-puberty
  • Latency age children have more control over their motor skills; they have more agility and dexterity
  • Endurance has increased
  • Latency age children are better able to use language for greater expression of thoughts
  • There is a beginning capacity for logic and reasoning; beginning of deductive reasoning and understanding cause and effect
  • Greater ability to understand and use humor
  • Greater awareness and interpretation of space and distance
Socialization/Sense of Self:
  • Latency age children begin to engage more in external social relationships; school and community become a primary source of relating
  • Use of skills and intellect to gain praise
  • Criticism can lead to feelings of inferiority
  • Social roles are beginning to develop
  • Self-efficacy is beginning to emerge
  • Children at this age relate themselves to their accomplishments and achievements
At this stage of development, children are socializing more frequently outside of the family environment. They endeavor to be successful and a part of their social world. How well they are able to use their skills and participate in a larger group is an important part of their emotional growth. Criticism is experienced as hurtful and peer relationships can be difficult, as a result. Being active and using new skills helps develop a sense of effectiveness. Encouragement and support of this activity can promote physical, social, and emotional development.

Next time -- Adolescence: Identity versus Confusion

Source: Growth and Developmental Tasks (author unknown)